Penetration of water into industrial softwood chips – influence of physical properties.

ABSTRACT In earlier studies, the fundamentals of the liquor penetration process in the case of hand made, homogenous, identically shaped wooden blocks have been studied. However, the efficiency of liquor penetration into real industrial chips may differ from the efficiency of penetration into ideal handmade chips. In this paper, impregnation experiments with three industrial softwood chip grades including sawmill chips,…

The Kinetics and Stoichiometry of the Reaction between Hypochlorous Acid and Chlorous Acid in Mildly Acidic Solutions.

ABSTRACT The kinetics and stoichiometry of the reaction between hypochlorous acid and chlorous acid was studied under mildly acidic conditions (pH = 2.5−4.7). The experiments were conducted in dilute solutions (10−4−10−3 M) at T = 5−25 °C. External buffer compounds were not used. Chlorous acid, chlorine dioxide, and chlorate concentrations were monitored with titrimetric methods. Rate coefficients and activation energies…

Chlorate formation in chlorine dioxide delignification-an analysis via elementary kinetic modeling

ABSTRACT Elementary kinetic modeling was used to study the mechanism of chlorate formation in chlorine dioxide delignification. Reaction conditions reflecting typical industrial processes (T = 50°C, pH 1.5–4) were examined. Fe mediated Cl(III) decomposition and a reaction between hypochlorous acid and chlorous acid (or their equilibrium counterparts) were found to be the major reaction routes responsible for chlorate formation at…