Determination of phenomena involved in impregnation of softwood chips. Part 1. Method for calculating the true penetration degree.

ABSTRACT In earlier studies the degree of penetration was calculated with a method which gave a penetration degree of over 100%, if mill liquors were used, because the method ignored the diffusion of cooking chemicals and dissolution of wood material. In this paper, a new experimental research method is presented, which allows the penetration of mill liquors to be examined…

Determination of phenomena involved in impregnation of softwood chips. Part 2: alkali uptake, alkali consumption and impregnation yield.

ABSTRACT The influence of impregnation conditions on the phenomena involved in impregnation was studied with the aid of a new impregnation method. The method was found to be good enough for scientific research purposes and useful for gaining new knowledge of the alkali uptake, alkali consumption and dissolution of wood material during impregnation. An impregnation time of slightly over 15…